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Environ Res. 2014 Oct;134:81-90. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.06.015. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan.

Author information

1
Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan; Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Haripur, Hattar Road, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Haripur 22620, Pakistan. Electronic address: majid_qau86@yahoo.com.
2
Leaf Agronomy Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company, Akora Khattak Factory, P.O. & District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
3
Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk.
4
University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

Abstract

This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic fertilizers.

KEYWORDS:

Carbon footprints; Greenhouse gas emissions; Pakistan Tobacco Company; Tobacco; tCO(2)e

PMID:
25083801
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2014.06.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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