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Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2013 Jun;4(3):125-33. doi: 10.1177/2042098613482484.

Proton pump inhibitors and risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency: evidence and clinical implications.

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University of Michigan, Ypsilanti Health Center, 200 Arnet Suite 200, Ypsilanti, MI 48198, USA.


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remain the superior choice worldwide in antisecretory therapy in the evidence-based treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease. PPI overutilization in ambulatory care settings is often a result of failure to re-evaluate the need for continuation of therapy, or insufficient use of on-demand and step-down therapy. Nonjudicious use of PPIs creates both preventable financial as well as medical concerns. PPIs have been associated with an increased risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies impacting vitamin B12, vitamin C, calcium, iron and magnesium metabolism. While these risks are considered to be relatively low in the general population, they may be notable in elderly and malnourished patients, as well as those on chronic hemodialysis and concomitant PPI therapy. No current evidence recommends routine screening or supplementation for these potential vitamin and mineral deficiencies in patients on either short- or long-term PPI therapy. Reducing inappropriate prescribing of PPIs can minimize the potential risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies.


antisecretory therapy; calcium; iron; magnesium; mineral deficiency proton pump inhibitor(s); vitamin B12; vitamin C; vitamin deficiency

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