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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Aug 5;64(5):472-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.04.058.

Leisure-time running reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk.

Author information

1
Department of Kinesiology, College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Electronic address: dclee@iastate.edu.
2
Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
3
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Preventive Medicine Research, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
4
Department of Preventive Medicine Research, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
5
Department of Exercise Science and Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Erratum in

  • J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Oct 7;64(14):1537.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although running is a popular leisure-time physical activity, little is known about the long-term effects of running on mortality. The dose-response relations between running, as well as the change in running behaviors over time, and mortality remain uncertain.

OBJECTIVES:

We examined the associations of running with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks in 55,137 adults, 18 to 100 years of age (mean age 44 years).

METHODS:

Running was assessed on a medical history questionnaire by leisure-time activity.

RESULTS:

During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 3,413 all-cause and 1,217 cardiovascular deaths occurred. Approximately 24% of adults participated in running in this population. Compared with nonrunners, runners had 30% and 45% lower adjusted risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, with a 3-year life expectancy benefit. In dose-response analyses, the mortality benefits in runners were similar across quintiles of running time, distance, frequency, amount, and speed, compared with nonrunners. Weekly running even <51 min, <6 miles, 1 to 2 times, <506 metabolic equivalent-minutes, or <6 miles/h was sufficient to reduce risk of mortality, compared with not running. In the analyses of change in running behaviors and mortality, persistent runners had the most significant benefits, with 29% and 50% lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, compared with never-runners.

CONCLUSIONS:

Running, even 5 to 10 min/day and at slow speeds <6 miles/h, is associated with markedly reduced risks of death from all causes and cardiovascular disease. This study may motivate healthy but sedentary individuals to begin and continue running for substantial and attainable mortality benefits.

KEYWORDS:

all-cause mortality; cardiovascular mortality; dose response; epidemiology; physical exercise; running pattern

PMID:
25082581
PMCID:
PMC4131752
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2014.04.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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