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Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Jul-Aug;57(1):19-31. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2014.05.005. Epub 2014 May 20.

Clinical application of three-dimensional echocardiography.

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Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Internal Medicine I and Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:


Echocardiography is one of the most valuable diagnostic tools in cardiology. Technological advances in ultrasound, computer and electronics enables three-dimensional (3-D) imaging to be a clinically viable modality which has significant impact on diagnosis, management and interventional procedures. Since the inception of 3D fully-sampled matrix transthoracic and transesophageal technology it has enabled easier acquisition, immediate on-line display, and availability of on-line analysis for the left ventricle, right ventricle and mitral valve. The use of 3D TTE has mainly focused on mitral valve disease, left and right ventricular volume and functional analysis. As structural heart disease procedures become more prevalent, 3D TEE has become a requirement for preparation of the procedure, intra-procedural guidance as well as monitoring for complications and device function. We anticipate that there will be further software development, improvement in image quality and workflow.


Left ventricular function and right ventricular function; Three-dimensional echocardiography; Valvular heart disease

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