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Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Oct;21(10):1410-20. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00382-14. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Partial Activation of natural killer and γδ T cells by classical swine fever viruses is associated with type I interferon elicited from plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

Author information

1
Virology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom Department of Microbial & Cellular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.
2
Virology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom.
3
Virology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur, India.
4
Virology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom Department of Comparative Pathology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Córdoba, Edificio Sanidad Animal, Campus de Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.
5
Pathology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom.
6
Department of Microbial & Cellular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.
7
Virology Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, United Kingdom simon.graham@ahvla.gsi.gov.uk.

Abstract

Vaccination with live attenuated classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccines can rapidly confer protection in the absence of neutralizing antibodies. With an aim of providing information on the cellular mechanisms that may mediate this protection, we explored the interaction of porcine natural killer (NK) cells and γδ T cells with CSFV. Both NK and γδ T cells were refractory to infection with attenuated or virulent CSFV, and no stimulatory effects, as assessed by the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHC-II), perforin, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), were observed when the cells were cultured in the presence of CSFV. Coculture with CSFV and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) or plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) showed that pDCs led to a partial activation of both NK and γδ T cells, with upregulation of MHC-II being observed. An analysis of cytokine expression by infected DC subsets suggested that this effect was due to IFN-α secreted by infected pDCs. These results were supported by ex vivo analyses of NK and γδ T cells in the tonsils and retropharyngeal lymph nodes from pigs that had been vaccinated with live attenuated CSFV and/or virulent CSFV. At 5 days postchallenge, there was evidence of significant upregulation of MHC-II but not perforin on NK and γδ T cells, which was observed only following a challenge of the unvaccinated pigs and correlated with increased CSFV replication and IFN-α expression in both the tonsils and serum. Together, these data suggest that it is unlikely that NK or γδ T cells contribute to the cellular effector mechanisms induced by live attenuated CSFV.

PMID:
25080554
PMCID:
PMC4266346
DOI:
10.1128/CVI.00382-14
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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