Format

Send to

Choose Destination
BMJ Open. 2014 Jul 29;4(7):e004899. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004899.

Cross-sectional association between cigarette smoking and abdominal obesity among Austrian bank employees.

Author information

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
2
Institute of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
3
Platform Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

There is increasing evidence that smoking is associated with abdominal obesity and other risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate these associations in a sample of healthy Austrian adults.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

Data of 986 employees of an Austrian company (405 men and 581 women; participation rate approximately 80%) obtained during their annual medical check-up at the workplace were analysed.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:

Information on smoking status, education level, physical activity, diet, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and biochemical parameters was obtained. The influence of smoking on health and anthropometric measures was investigated.

RESULTS:

No differences in total body fat and/or body fat distribution were found between non-smokers, smokers and former smokers; however, among daily smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was significantly associated with higher body weight (p=0.001) and BMI (p=0.009). Male and female smokers had significantly higher white cell count than non-smokers and former smokers. Heavy smokers also had an unhealthier lipid profile (lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and higher fasting glucose levels even after controlling for physical activity and calorie intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

Contrary to the beliefs of many smokers, heavy smoking is associated with higher body weight and unfavourable metabolic changes.

KEYWORDS:

EPIDEMIOLOGY; NUTRITION & DIETETICS

PMID:
25079922
PMCID:
PMC4120441
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004899
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center