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Life Sci. 1989;45(12):1073-80.

Regulation by chronic clonidine of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in the rat locus coeruleus.

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1
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Abstract

Clonidine and morphine are known to produce tolerance and dependence in rat locus coeruleus (LC) neurons after chronic administration based on electrophysiological criteria. Previous studies have shown that morphine tolerance and dependence is associated with increases in levels of adenylate cyclase, pertussis toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation of G-proteins, and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in this brain region. The present study was aimed at investigating whether clonidine tolerance and dependence is also associated with alterations in these intracellular messengers. It was found that, similar to chronic morphine, chronic (2 weeks) clonidine administration, under conditions that produce electrophysiological evidence of tolerance and dependence in LC neurons, increased levels of adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in this brain region, but not in several other regions studied, which included the frontal cortex, neostriatum, and dorsal raphe. However, the changes induced by chronic clonidine in the LC, at maximal doses and duration of treatment, were only approximately 50% in magnitude of those observed in response to morphine. Unlike chronic morphine, chronic clonidine produced no change in G-protein ADP-ribosylation levels in the LC. Chronic administration of a number of other drugs, namely diazepam, chloral hydrate, and dextromethorphan, which produce electrophysiological actions distinct from those of clonidine and morphine in the LC, failed to alter adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in this brain region. The results indicate that increased levels of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase represent common adaptations by LC neurons to chronic clonidine and morphine, and raise the possibility that such changes contribute to the development of clonidine and morphine tolerance and dependence in these neurons.

PMID:
2507846
DOI:
10.1016/0024-3205(89)90164-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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