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Hypertens Res. 2014 Dec;37(12):1075-81. doi: 10.1038/hr.2014.121. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Higher urinary heavy metal, phthalate and arsenic concentrations accounted for 3-19% of the population attributable risk for high blood pressure: US NHANES, 2009-2012.

Author information

1
1] School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK [2] Owens Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA [3] Alzheimer's Scotland Dementia Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
2
Department of Noninvasive Functional Diagnostic and Imaging, University National Heart Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Abstract

The link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged, but has not been completely examined in terms of its risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and high blood pressure (BP) in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2009-2012, including demographics, BP readings and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included χ(2)-test, t-test, survey-weighted logistic regression models and population attributable risk estimation. Urinary cesium (odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.18, P=0.026), molybdenum (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02, P=0.029), lead (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.12-1.98, P=0.009), platinum (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.21, P=0.002), antimony (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.86, P=0.008) and tungsten (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.79, P<0.001) concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. Similar results were observed for mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.59, P=0.024), mono-n-butyl (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.67, P=0.005), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46, P=0.041), mono-n-methyl (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.46, P=0.014), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45, P=0.036), mono-benzyl (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.15-1.74, P=0.002), dimethylarsonic acid (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.76, P=0.012) and trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.29-5.07, P=0.010) concentrations. Each chemical could account for 3-19% of the population attributable risk for high BP. A small sex difference was found. However, there are no associations between environmental parabens and pesticides and high BP. Urinary heavy metal, phthalate and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although a causal effect cannot be established. Elimination of environmental chemical exposure in humans still needs to be pursued.

PMID:
25077919
DOI:
10.1038/hr.2014.121
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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