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J Psychosom Res. 2014 Aug;77(2):122-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.05.007. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Characteristics associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and quality-of-life in a large cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology and Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: ingela.thylen@lio.se.
2
College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, United States. Electronic address: rebecca.dekker@uky.edu.
3
Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: tiny.jaarsma@liu.se.
4
Department of Cardiology and Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: anna.stromberg@liu.se.
5
College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, United States. Electronic address: dmoser@email.uky.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Although most patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) adjust well, some have considerable psychological distress. Factors associated with psychological adjustment in ICD-recipients are still not well understood. Our purpose was to describe quality-of-life (QoL) and prevalence of self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression in a large national cohort of ICD-recipients, and to determine socio-demographic, clinical, and ICD-related factors associated with these variables.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. All eligible adult ICD-recipients in the Swedish ICD- and Pacemaker Registry were invited to participate. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and QoL with the EuroQol-5D.

RESULTS:

A total of 3067 ICD-recipients (66±11years, 80% male) were included. The mean HADS score was 3.84±3.70 for anxiety symptoms and 2.99±3.01 for symptoms of depression. The mean EQ-5D index score was 0.82±0.21. The probability of symptoms of anxiety and depression was associated with younger age, living alone, and a previous history of myocardial infarction or heart failure. Additionally, female ICD-recipients had a higher probability of symptoms of anxiety. A higher level of ICD-related concerns was most prominently related to symptoms of anxiety, depressive symptoms and poorer QoL, while number of shocks, ICD-indication and time since implantation were not independently related.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this large cohort of ICD-recipients, the association of ICD-related concerns with symptoms of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and poor QoL suggests that ICD specific factors should be addressed in order to improve outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Depression; Implantable cardioverter defibrillator; Patient outcomes; Psychological distress; Quality-of-life

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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