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Pain. 2014 Oct;155(10):2088-96. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2014.07.019. Epub 2014 Jul 27.

Physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of pain intensity, pain disability, and the number of pain locations in depressed older adults.

Author information

1
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry & Department of Primary Care, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: D.Hanssen@psy.umcn.nl.
2
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry & Department of Primary Care, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Old-age Psychiatry, GGNet, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.
3
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry & Department of Primary Care, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Pro Persona, Nijmegen Mental Health Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Psychiatry/EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; GGZinGeest, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
5
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Psychiatry & Department of Primary Care, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; University Center for Psychiatry & Interdisciplinary Center for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Late-life depression and pain more often co-occur than can be explained by chance. Determinants of pain in late-life depression are unknown, even though knowledge on possible determinants of pain in depression is important for clinical practice. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were 1) to describe pain characteristics of depressed older adults and a nondepressed comparison group, and 2) to explore physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of acute and chronic pain intensity, disability, and multisite pain in depressed older adults. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons cohort, consisting of 378 depressed persons, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria, and 132 nondepressed persons aged 60 years and older, were used in a cross-sectional design. Pain characteristics were measured by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the contribution of physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants to outcomes pain intensity, disability, and the number of pain locations. Depressed older adults more often reported chronic pain and experienced their pain as more intense and disabling compared to nondepressed older adults. Adjusted for demographic, physical, and lifestyle characteristics, multinomial logistic regression analyses showed increased odds ratios (OR) for depression in acute pain (OR 3.010; P=0.005) and chronic pain (OR 4.544, P<0.001). In addition, linear regression analyses showed that acute and chronic pain intensity, disability, and multisite pain were associated with several biopsychosocial determinants, of which anxiety was most pronounced. Further research could focus on the temporal relationship between anxiety, late-life depression, and pain.

KEYWORDS:

Acute pain; Aged; Aged, 80years and over; Chronic pain; Depression

PMID:
25072890
DOI:
10.1016/j.pain.2014.07.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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