Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2014 Jul 29;9(7):e103496. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103496. eCollection 2014.

Quality of life and associated socio-clinical factors after encephalitis in children and adults in England: a population-based, prospective cohort study.

Author information

Reference Microbiology Service, Public Health England, London, South London, United Kingdom; and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.
Virus Reference Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Neurology, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
Statistics, Modelling and Economics Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
Public Health Ontario, Ontario, Canada.



We sought to measure HRQoL in all-cause encephalitis survivors and assess the impact of various socio-clinical factors on outcome.


We used a prospective cohort study design, using the short-form 36 (SF-36) to measure the HRQoL in patients 15 years and older, and the short-form 10 (SF-10) for patients less than 15 years old. We posted questionnaires to individuals six months after discharge from hospital. All scores were normalised to the age- and sex-matched general population. We used multivariate statistical analysis to assess the relative association of clinical and socio-demographic variables on HRQoL in adults.


Of 109 individuals followed-up, we received 61 SF-36 and twenty SF-10 questionnaires (response rate 74%). Patients scored consistently worse than the general population in all domains of the SF-36 and SF-10, although there was variation in individual scores. Infectious encephalitis was associated with the worst HRQoL in those aged 15 years and over, scoring on average 5.64 points less than immune-mediated encephalitis (95% CI -8.77- -2.89). In those aged less than 15 years the worst quality of life followed encephalitis of unknown cause. Immuno compromise, unemployment, and the 35-44 age group all had an independent negative association with HRQoL. A poor Glasgow Outcome Score was most strongly associated with a poor HRQoL. Less than half of those who had made a 'good' recovery on the score reported a HRQoL equivalent to the general population.


Encephalitis has adverse effects on the majority of survivors' wellbeing and quality of life. Many of these adverse consequences could be minimised by prompt identification and treatment, and with better rehabilitation and support for survivors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center