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Syst Biol. 2014 Nov;63(6):879-901. doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syu047. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Borneo and Indochina are major evolutionary hotspots for Southeast Asian biodiversity.

Author information

1
Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK; Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstr. 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany; Southeast Asia Research Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham Hill, Egham TW20 0EX, UK; Palynova Limited, 1 Mow Fen Road, Littleport, Cambs CB6 1PY, UK; Niko Asia Ltd, Plaza City View, Jl Kemang Timur 22, Jakarta 12510, Indonesia; Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, TX 79409-3131, USA; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden, Yunnan 666303, P.R. China; Centre for Archaeological Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Borneo Futures Project, People and Nature Consulting International, Country Woods house 306, JL. WR Supratman, Pondok Ranji, Ciputat, Jakarta 15412, Indonesia; School of Archaeology & Anthropology, Building 14, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia; Earth Sciences, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia; GEMOC, ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; Department of Biology and Biotechnologies "Charles Darwin", Sapienza Università di Roma, viale dell'Università 32, 00185 Rome, Italy; Clastic Reservoir Systems, 10700 Richmond Avenue, Suite 325, Houston, TX 77042, USA markus.debruyn@gmail.com.
2
Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK; Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstr. 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany; Southeast Asia Research Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham Hill, Egham TW20 0EX, UK; Palynova Limited, 1 Mow Fen Road, Littleport, Cambs CB6 1PY, UK; Niko Asia Ltd, Plaza City View, Jl Kemang Timur 22, Jakarta 12510, Indonesia; Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, TX 79409-3131, USA; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden, Yunnan 666303, P.R. China; Centre for Archaeological Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Borneo Futures Project, People and Nature Consulting International, Country Woods house 306, JL. WR Supratman, Pondok Ranji, Ciputat, Jakarta 15412, Indonesia; School of Archaeology & Anthropology, Building 14, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia; Earth Sciences, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia; GEMOC, ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; Department of Biology and Biotechnologies "Charles Darwin", Sapienza Università di Roma, viale dell'Università 32, 00185 Rome, Italy; Clastic Reservoir Systems, 10700 Richmond Avenue, Suite 325, Houston, TX 77042, USA.
3
Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK; Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstr. 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany; Southeast Asia Research Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham Hill, Egham TW20 0EX, UK; Palynova Limited, 1 Mow Fen Road, Littleport, Cambs CB6 1PY, UK; Niko Asia Ltd, Plaza City View, Jl Kemang Timur 22, Jakarta 12510, Indonesia; Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, TX 79409-3131, USA; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden, Yunnan 666303, P.R. China; Centre for Archaeological Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Borneo Futures Project, People and Nature Consulting International, Country Woods house 306, JL. WR Supratman, Pondok Ranji, Ciputat, Jakarta 15412, Indonesia; School of Archaeology & Anthropology, Building 14, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia; Earth Sciences, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia; GEMOC, ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia; Department of Biology and Biotechnologies "Charles Darwin", Sapienza Università di Roma, viale dell'Università 32, 00185 Rome, Italy; Clastic Reservoir Systems, 10700 Richmond Avenue, Suite 325, Houston, TX 77042, USA Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK; Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstr. 43, 10115 Berlin, German

Abstract

Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the SE Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic, and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) data sets to test which areas have been the sources of long-term biological diversity in SE Asia, particularly in the pre-Miocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene, and whether the respective biota have been dominated by in situ diversification, immigration and/or emigration, or equilibrium dynamics. We identify Borneo and Indochina, in particular, as major "evolutionary hotspots" for a diverse range of fauna and flora. Although most of the region's biodiversity is a result of both the accumulation of immigrants and in situ diversification, within-area diversification and subsequent emigration have been the predominant signals characterizing Indochina and Borneo's biota since at least the early Miocene. In contrast, colonization events are comparatively rare from younger volcanically active emergent islands such as Java, which show increased levels of immigration events. Few dispersal events were observed across the major biogeographic barrier of Wallace's Line. Accelerated efforts to conserve Borneo's flora and fauna in particular, currently housing the highest levels of SE Asian plant and mammal species richness, are critically required.

KEYWORDS:

Biogeography; Ecology; Geology; Palynology; Phylogenetics; climate change

PMID:
25070971
DOI:
10.1093/sysbio/syu047
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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