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Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18(15):2228-36.

The anti-inflammatory effects of 1,1 dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) compared to dexamethasone in a guinea pig model of ovalbumin induced asthma.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.



Inflammatory cells involved in the pathophysiology of asthma express nicotinic receptor. Therefore 1,1 dimethyl(-4-)phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) in two doses were compared to dexamethasone in asthmatic guinea pigs.


Six groups were included; Normal control and five asthmatic (OVA-sensitized and challenged) groups; which were treated for 10 days as follows: two vehicles, dexamethasone (DEXA, 1 mg/kg) and DMPP (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) groups. Pulmonary functions and airway hyper-responsiveness were assessed. Leukocytic count, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were measured in both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Histopathological examination of the lung tissues was conducted.


Asthmatic untreated animals exhibited significant increase in early and late airway resistance (RxV) and airway hyper-responsiveness, with reduction in tidal volume. Both blood and BALF showed significant increase in total leukocytic count (TLC), eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, TNF-α, IL-6 and IgE with significant decrease in neutrophils. Airway inflammatory cell infiltration and smooth muscle thickness significantly increased. DMPP 0.4 mg/kg significantly decreased late phase RXV, TLC, BALF lymphocytes, TNF-α, smooth muscle thickness and increased neutrophils in BALF over both DEXA and DMPP 0.8 mg/kg. Moreover, DMPP 0.4 mg/kg significantly decreased IL-6 and BALF eosinophils than DMPP 0.8 mg/kg and decreased serum IgE and parenchymal inflammatory infiltration than DEXA.


Low dose DMPP has more anti-inflammatory effect than a high dose in most parameters and sometimes than dexamethasone. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway may therefore represent a potential drug target for allergic asthma. The dose related effect of DMPP and the mechanism underlying this effect require further evaluation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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