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Pathol Biol (Paris). 2014 Oct;62(5):233-40. doi: 10.1016/j.patbio.2014.05.015. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Cognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.

Author information

1
Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5 Canada; Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2101, Jeanne-Mance, Montréal, QC, H2X 2J6 Canada.
2
Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5 Canada; Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 2900, Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC, H3T 1J4 Canada.
3
Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5 Canada; Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, 2900, Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC, H3T 1J4 Canada.
4
Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5 Canada; Memory Clinic, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5 Canada.
5
Department of Pulmonology, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5 Canada.
6
Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montréal, QC, H4J 1C5 Canada; Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, 2900, Boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC, H3T 1J4 Canada. Electronic address: nadia.gosselin@umontreal.ca.

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterised by repetitive cessation or reduction of airflow due to upper airway obstructions. These respiratory events lead to chronic sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxemia. Several studies have shown that OSA is associated with daytime sleepiness and cognitive dysfunctions, characterized by impairments of attention, episodic memory, working memory, and executive functions. This paper reviews the cognitive profile of adults with OSA and discusses the relative role of altered sleep and hypoxemia in the aetiology of these cognitive deficits. Markers of cognitive dysfunctions such as those measured with waking electroencephalography and neuroimaging are also presented. The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on cognitive functioning and the possibility of permanent brain damage associated with OSA are also discussed. Finally, this paper reviews the evidence suggesting that OSA is a risk factor for developing mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the aging population and stresses the importance of its early diagnosis and treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Apnée obstructive du sommeil; Cognition; Continuous positive airway pressure; Electroencephalography; Neuroimagerie; Neuroimaging; Neuropsychologie; Neuropsychology; Obstructive sleep apnea; Pression positive continue; Vieillissement; Électroencéphalographie

PMID:
25070768
DOI:
10.1016/j.patbio.2014.05.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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