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Thorac Surg Clin. 2014 Aug;24(3):257-66. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg.2014.04.001.

Pathology and diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors: lung neuroendocrine.

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Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:


Neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the lung include a spectrum from low-grade typical carcinoid (TC) and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid (AC) to high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Although NE lung tumors are frequently discussed together, as in this article, carcinoids are very different from high-grade SCLC and LCNEC. SCLC and LCNEC are found in heavy-smoking, older patients, whereas smoking is not strongly associated with carcinoid tumors. On a molecular level, SCLC and LCNEC have extensive genetic abnormalities, but there are few in TC and slightly more in AC.


Atypical carcinoid; Carcinoid; Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; Lung; Neuroendocrine; Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; Small cell carcinoma; Typical carcinoid

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