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Trends Microbiol. 2014 Nov;22(11):648-55. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2014.06.007. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Salmonella chronic carriage: epidemiology, diagnosis, and gallbladder persistence.

Author information

1
Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, OH, USA. Electronic address: john.gunn@osumc.edu.
2
Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, OH, USA.
3
The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Centre for Tropical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom; The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
4
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.
5
Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
6
Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

Typhoid (enteric fever) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing over 21 million new infections annually, with the majority of deaths occurring in young children. Because typhoid fever-causing Salmonella have no known environmental reservoir, the chronic, asymptomatic carrier state is thought to be a key feature of continued maintenance of the bacterium within human populations. Despite the importance of this disease to public health, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that catalyze carriage, as well as our ability to reliably identify and treat the Salmonella carrier state, have only recently begun to advance.

KEYWORDS:

Salmonella; chronic carrier; diagnostics; epidemiology; typhoid fever

PMID:
25065707
PMCID:
PMC4252485
DOI:
10.1016/j.tim.2014.06.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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