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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Sep 1;142:14-23. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.07.002. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

A meta-analysis of ear-acupuncture, ear-acupressure and auriculotherapy for cigarette smoking cessation.

Author information

1
School of Health Sciences, Traditional & Complementary Medicine Research Program, Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address: yuan.di@rmit.edu.au.
2
School of Health Sciences, Traditional & Complementary Medicine Research Program, Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address: brian.may@rmit.edu.au.
3
School of Health Sciences, Traditional & Complementary Medicine Research Program, Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address: tony.zhang@rmit.edu.au.
4
School of Health Sciences, Traditional & Complementary Medicine Research Program, Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address: iris.zhou@rmit.edu.au.
5
Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC 3081, Australia. Electronic address: christopher.worsnop@austin.org.au.
6
School of Health Sciences, Traditional & Complementary Medicine Research Program, Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia; Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: charlie.xue@rmit.edu.au.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This systematic review evaluated the effects of ear acupuncture, ear acupressure and auriculotherapy for cigarette smoking cessation (SC) at end-of-treatment (EoT), three, six and 12 months follow-up.

METHODS:

Searches of six English and Chinese databases located 25 randomized controlled trials (3735 participants). Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias. Meta-analyses were conducted in two pools: 1. SC-specific ear acupuncture/acupressure or auriculotherapy (EAP/R) vs. non-specific/inactive control; and 2. SC-specific EAP/R vs. other SC-specific treatment. Sensitivity analyses were conducted based on the validity of interventions as SC-specific treatments or non-specific/inactive interventions; and the use of biochemical SC confirmation.

RESULTS:

Pool 1: the 12 valid SC-specific EAP/R interventions were superior to inactive EAP/R controls at EoT (RR=1.77 [1.39, 2.25]), three months follow-up (RR=1.54 [1.14, 2.08]), and six months follow-up (RR=2.01, [1.23, 3.28]) but data were insufficient at 12 months. In Pool 2: there was no superiority or inferiority for EAP/R at EoT or at 3 and 6 month follow-ups compared to SC-specific behavioural therapy or SC-specific body acupuncture.

CONCLUSIONS:

Pool 1 data appeared most consistent for studies of ear acupressure (EAPR) vs. non-specific EAPR controls, with confirmed SC rates at 3 months post-treatment of 20.0% for test groups vs. 7.5% for controls. In Pool 2 the EAP/R interventions appeared neither inferior nor superior to the behavioural interventions at 3 and 6 month follow-ups. However, meta-analysis results derived from relatively small-sized trials with no biochemical validation of SC in Pool 2. Larger, well-controlled studies using biochemical confirmation of SC are needed.

KEYWORDS:

Cigarette; Ear acupressure; Ear acupuncture; Smoking; Systematic review; Tobacco

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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