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J Pediatr. 2014 Oct;165(4):707-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.06.031. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Quantity and timing of maternal prenatal smoking on neonatal body composition: the Healthy Start study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO.
  • 2Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO; Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital, Aurora, CO.
  • 3Department of Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
  • 4Department of Biostatistics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO.
  • 5Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO. Electronic address: Dana.Dabelea@ucdenver.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the dose-dependent and time-specific relationships of prenatal smoking with neonatal body mass, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and FM-to-FFM ratio, as measured by air-displacement plethysmography (PEA POD system).

STUDY DESIGN:

We analyzed 916 mother-neonate pairs participating in the longitudinal prebirth cohort Healthy Start study. Maternal prenatal smoking information was collected in early, middle, and late pregnancy by self-report. Neonatal body composition was measured with the PEA POD system after delivery. Multiple general linear regression models were adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics.

RESULTS:

Each additional pack of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy was associated with significant decreases in neonatal body mass (adjusted mean difference, -2.8 g; 95% CI, -3.9 to -1.8 g; P < .001), FM (-0.7 g; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.3 g; P < .001), and FFM (-2.1 g; 95% CI, -2.9 to -1.3 g; P < .001). Neonates exposed to prenatal smoking throughout pregnancy had significantly lower body mass (P < .001), FM (P < .001), and FFM (P < .001) compared with those not exposed to smoking. However, neonates of mothers who smoked only before late pregnancy had no significant differences in body mass (P = .47), FM (P = .43), or FFM (P = .59) compared with unexposed offspring.

CONCLUSION:

Exposure to prenatal smoking leads to systematic growth restriction. Smoking cessation before late pregnancy may reduce the consequences of exposure to prenatal smoking on body composition. Follow-up of this cohort is needed to determine the influence of catch-up growth on early-life body composition and the risk of childhood obesity.

PMID:
25063722
PMCID:
PMC4177331
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.06.031
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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