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Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:317-36. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100913-013357. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

Electrochemical control of cell and tissue polarity.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032; email:


Localized ion fluxes at the plasma membrane provide electrochemical gradients at the cell surface that contribute to cell polarization, migration, and division. Ion transporters, local pH gradients, membrane potential, and organization are emerging as important factors in cell polarization mechanisms. The power of electrochemical effects is illustrated by the ability of exogenous electric fields to redirect polarization in cells ranging from bacteria, fungi, and amoebas to keratocytes and neurons. Electric fields normally surround cells and tissues and thus have been proposed to guide cell polarity in development, cancer, and wound healing. Recent studies on electric field responses in model systems and development of new biosensors provide new avenues to dissect molecular mechanisms. Here, we review recent advances that bring molecular understanding of how electrochemistry contributes to cell polarity in various contexts.


cell polarity; cytoskeleton; electric fields; electrochemistry; ion transport; small GTPases

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