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Phys Rev Lett. 2014 Jul 11;113(2):021301. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization lensing power spectrum with the POLARBEAR experiment.

Author information

1
School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ, United Kingdom.
2
The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa 240-0115, Japan.
3
Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.
4
Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424, USA.
5
Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 92093-0424, USA and Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
6
Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada.
7
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
8
Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G4, Canada.
9
AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France and International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste 34014, Italy.
10
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.
11
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Swindon SN2 1SZ, United Kingdom.
12
Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.
13
The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa 240-0115, Japan and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan.
14
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan.
15
The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa 240-0115, Japan and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan and Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan.
16
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
17
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, United Kingdom.
18
Physics Department, Austin College, Sherman, Texas 75090, USA.
19
Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.
20
Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.
21
Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.
22
Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 92093-0424, USA.
23
AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France.
24
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 92093-0424, USA.
25
Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 92093-0424, USA.
26
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
27
Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA.
28
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan.
29
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Physics Department, Napa Valley College, Napa, California 94558, USA.
30
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424, USA.
31
Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.
32
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
33
Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424, USA and School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
34
Three-Speed Logic, Inc., Vancouver, British Columbia V6A 2J8, Canada.
35
Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 92093-0424, USA.
36
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan and Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan.

Abstract

Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.

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