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Circ Heart Fail. 2014 Sep;7(5):709-16. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.001041. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Arterial stiffness, central pressures, and incident hospitalized heart failure in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study.

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1
From the Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.A.C., A.K., D.L.D., V.F., R.K., A.S., J.S., R.R.T.); Department of Medicine, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, PA (J.A.C.); Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (N.B.); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (H.I.F., A.H.A., V.T.); Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago (J.P.L.); Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (A.O.); Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (M.S.); Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (J.R.); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Q.P.); and Division of Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Oakland (A.S.G.). julio.chirinos@uphs.upenn.edu.
2
From the Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (J.A.C., A.K., D.L.D., V.F., R.K., A.S., J.S., R.R.T.); Department of Medicine, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, PA (J.A.C.); Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (N.B.); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (H.I.F., A.H.A., V.T.); Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago (J.P.L.); Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (A.O.); Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (M.S.); Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (J.R.); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Q.P.); and Division of Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Oakland (A.S.G.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). We aimed to evaluate the role of large artery stiffness, brachial, and central blood pressure as predictors of incident hospitalized HF in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), a multiethnic, multicenter prospective observational study of patients with chronic kidney disease.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We studied 2602 participants who were free of HF at baseline. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV; the gold standard index of large artery stiffness), brachial, and central pressures (estimated via radial tonometry and a generalized transfer function) were assessed at baseline. Participants were prospectively followed up to assess the development of new-onset hospitalized HF. During 3.5 years of follow-up, 154 participants had a first hospital admission for HF. CF-PWV was a significant independent predictor of incident hospitalized HF. When compared with the lowest tertile, the hazard ratios among subjects in the middle and top CF-PWV tertiles were 2.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.37-3.97; P=0.002) and 5.24 (95% confidence interval, 3.22-8.53; P<0.0001), respectively. After adjustment for multiple confounders, the hazard ratios for the middle and top CF-PWV tertiles were 1.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-4.13; P=0.079) and 3.01 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-6.26; P=0.003), respectively. Brachial systolic and pulse pressure were also independently associated with incident hospitalized HF, whereas central pressures were less consistently associated with this end point. The association between CF-PWV and incident HF persisted after adjustment for systolic blood pressure.

CONCLUSIONS:

Large artery stiffness is an independent predictor of incident HF in chronic kidney disease, an association with strong biological plausibility given the known effects of large artery stiffening of left ventricular pulsatile load.

KEYWORDS:

heart failure; pulse wave analysis; renal insufficiency, chronic; vascular stiffness

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