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PLoS One. 2014 Jul 24;9(7):e102444. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102444. eCollection 2014.

Metabolome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots identifies a key metabolic pathway for iron acquisition.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
2
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
3
Department of Stress and Developmental Biology, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Halle/Saale, Germany.
4
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany; Bayreuth Center for Molecular Biosciences, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
5
Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany; Bayreuth Center for Molecular Biosciences, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.

Abstract

Fe deficiency compromises both human health and plant productivity. Thus, it is important to understand plant Fe acquisition strategies for the development of crop plants which are more Fe-efficient under Fe-limited conditions, such as alkaline soils, and have higher Fe density in their edible tissues. Root secretion of phenolic compounds has long been hypothesized to be a component of the reduction strategy of Fe acquisition in non-graminaceous plants. We therefore subjected roots of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under Fe-replete and Fe-deplete conditions to comprehensive metabolome analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scopoletin and other coumarins were found among the metabolites showing the strongest response to two different Fe-limited conditions, the cultivation in Fe-free medium and in medium with an alkaline pH. A coumarin biosynthesis mutant defective in ortho-hydroxylation of cinnamic acids was unable to grow on alkaline soil in the absence of Fe fertilization. Co-cultivation with wild-type plants partially rescued the Fe deficiency phenotype indicating a contribution of extracellular coumarins to Fe solubilization. Indeed, coumarins were detected in root exudates of wild-type plants. Direct infusion mass spectrometry as well as UV/vis spectroscopy indicated that coumarins are acting both as reductants of Fe(III) and as ligands of Fe(II).

PMID:
25058345
PMCID:
PMC4109925
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0102444
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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