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PLoS One. 2014 Jul 24;9(7):e102983. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102983. eCollection 2014.

Novel small molecule XPO1/CRM1 inhibitors induce nuclear accumulation of TP53, phosphorylated MAPK and apoptosis in human melanoma cells.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
2
Center for Biostatistics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
3
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
4
Karyopharm Therapeutics, Natick, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Abstract

XPO1/CRM1 is a key nuclear exporter protein that mediates translocation of numerous cellular regulatory proteins. We investigated whether XPO1 is a potential therapeutic target in melanoma using novel selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE). In vitro effects of SINE on cell growth and apoptosis were measured by MTS assay and flow cytometry [Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI)], respectively in human metastatic melanoma cell lines. Immunoblot analysis was used to measure nuclear localization of key cellular proteins. The in vivo activity of oral SINE was evaluated in NOD/SCID mice bearing A375 or CHL-1 human melanoma xenografts. SINE compounds induced cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects in both BRAF wild type and mutant (V600E) cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. The cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects of XPO1 inhibition were associated with nuclear accumulation of TP53, and CDKN1A induction in the A375 cell line with wild type TP53, while pMAPK accumulated in the nucleus regardless of TP53 status. The orally bioavailable KPT-276 and KPT-330 compounds significantly inhibited growth of A375 (p<0.0001) and CHL-1 (p = 0.0087) human melanoma cell lines in vivo at well tolerated doses. Inhibition of XPO1 using SINE represents a potential therapeutic approach for melanoma across cells with diverse molecular phenotypes by promoting growth inhibition and apoptosis.

PMID:
25057921
PMCID:
PMC4109950
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0102983
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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