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Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Oct 5;740:277-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.020. Epub 2014 Jul 20.

Non-antibiotic agent ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 enhanced the antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin in vitro and in vivo as a potential NorA inhibitor.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key laboratory of drug design and optimization, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
2
State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key laboratory of drug design and optimization, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address: zhoufangnjcpu@163.com.
3
State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Key Lab of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key laboratory of drug design and optimization, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address: guangjiwang@hotmail.com.
4
Division of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to explore the potential enhancing effect of ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 (Rh2) towards ciprofloxacin (CIP) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in vitro and in vivo, and analyze the possible mechanisms through NorA inhibition from a target cellular pharmacokinetic view. In combination with non-toxic dosage of Rh2, the susceptibilities of S. aureus strains to CIP were significantly augmented, and the antibacterial kinetics of CIP in the S. aureus strains were markedly promoted. This enhancing effect of Rh2 towards CIP was also observed in S. aureus infected peritonitis mice, with elevated survival rate and reduced bacteria counts in blood. However, Rh2 did not influence the plasma concentrations of CIP. Further analysis indicated that Rh2 significantly promoted the accumulations of CIP in S. aureus, and inhibited the NorA mediated efflux of pyronin Y. The expressions of NorA gene on S. aureus were positively correlated with the enhancing effect of Rh2 with CIP. This is the first report of the enhancing effect of Rh2 with CIP for S. aureus infection in vitro and in vivo, of which it is probably that Rh2 inhibited NorA-mediated efflux and promoted the accumulation of CIP in the bacteria.

KEYWORDS:

Bacteria resistance; Ciprofloxacin; Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2; NorA efflux pump; Staphylococcus aureus

PMID:
25054686
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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