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J Psychoactive Drugs. 2014 Apr-Jun;46(2):133-9. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2013.876522.

Mood, mood regulation, and frontal systems functioning in current smokers, long-term abstinent ex-smokers, and never-smokers.

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a Associate Professor, Department of Psychology , Bond University , Queensland , Australia.


Indices of mood, mood regulation, and executive functioning were examined in 61 current smokers who have smoked daily for at least one year, 36 ex-smokers who had not smoked a cigarette for at least one year, and 86 never-smokers. All participants completed the following measures online: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc tests revealed significant differences (p < .01) such that current smokers indicated worse functioning than both ex-smokers and never-smokers on DASS, NMR, and FrSBe, as well as heavier drinking as measured by AUDIT. These differences remained significant even after controlling for AUDIT scores. Results most plausibly reflect a return to pre-smoking baseline brain function in long-term abstinent ex-smokers.


addiction; nicotine; quitting smoking; self-regulation; smoking

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