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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3863-72. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1887. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Serum vitamin D levels in relation to schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

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1
Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 81745.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Although several observational studies have investigated the association between vitamin D status and schizophrenia, we are aware of no comprehensive meta-analysis in this regard.

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize the available data on the association between serum vitamin D levels and schizophrenia.

METHODS:

A systematic research on all published articles until October 2013 was conducted in PubMed, ISI (Web of science), SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. All observational studies that had measured serum vitamin D levels in schizophrenic patients were included in the systematic review. After considering exclusion criteria, we had 19 studies for the systematic review that were included in three separate meta-analyses: 1) a meta-analysis on mean levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (n = 13); 2) a meta-analysis on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (n = 8); 3) a meta-analysis on odds ratios (n = 8).

RESULTS:

Findings from a meta-analysis on means revealed that the overall mean difference in serum 25(OH)D levels between schizophrenic patients and control participants was -5.91 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI) -10.68, -1.14]. Subgroup analyses based on study design, the patient's hospitalization status, study quality, and study location did not explain between-study heterogeneity; however, type of biomarker assessed [25-hydroxyvitamin D3 vs 25-hydroxyvitamin D (D2 & D3)] could account for some degree of heterogeneity. RESULTS from the meta-analysis on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency indicated that the overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in schizophrenic patients was 65.3% (95% CI 46.4%-84.2%). Findings from the meta-analysis on odds ratios indicated that vitamin D-deficient persons were 2.16 times (95% CI 1.32, 3.56) more likely to have schizophrenia than those with vitamin D sufficiency. No evidence of heterogeneity was detected.

CONCLUSION:

We found a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia. However, randomized clinical trials are required to confirm our findings.

PMID:
25050991
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2014-1887
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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