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Biofabrication. 2014 Sep;6(3):035020. doi: 10.1088/1758-5082/6/3/035020. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Biofabrication of tissue constructs by 3D bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers.

Author information

1
Biomaterials for regenerative therapies group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, Spain. CIBER en BioingenierĂ­a, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Spain.

Abstract

Bioprinting allows the fabrication of living constructs with custom-made architectures by spatially controlled deposition of multiple bioinks. This is important for the generation of tissue, such as osteochondral tissue, which displays a zonal composition in the cartilage domain supported by the underlying subchondral bone. Challenges in fabricating functional grafts of clinically relevant size include the incorporation of cues to guide specific cell differentiation and the generation of sufficient cells, which is hard to obtain with conventional cell culture techniques. A novel strategy to address these demands is to combine bioprinting with microcarrier technology. This technology allows for the extensive expansion of cells, while they form multi-cellular aggregates, and their phenotype can be controlled. In this work, living constructs were fabricated via bioprinting of cell-laden microcarriers. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-laden polylactic acid microcarriers, obtained via static culture or spinner flask expansion, were encapsulated in gelatin methacrylamide-gellan gum bioinks, and the printability of the composite material was studied. This bioprinting approach allowed for the fabrication of constructs with high cell concentration and viability. Microcarrier encapsulation improved the compressive modulus of the hydrogel constructs, facilitated cell adhesion, and supported osteogenic differentiation and bone matrix deposition by MSCs. Bilayered osteochondral models were fabricated using microcarrier-laden bioink for the bone compartment. These findings underscore the potential of this new microcarrier-based biofabrication approach for bone and osteochondral constructs.

PMID:
25048797
DOI:
10.1088/1758-5082/6/3/035020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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