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Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;19(9):966-977. doi: 10.1038/mp.2014.68. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Why are cortical GABA neurons relevant to internal focus in depression? A cross-level model linking cellular, biochemical and neural network findings.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Royal Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Psychiatry, Center For Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Contributed equally


Major depression is a complex and severe psychiatric disorder whose symptomatology encompasses a critical shift in awareness, especially in the balance from external to internal mental focus. This is reflected by unspecific somatic symptoms and the predominance of the own cognitions manifested in increased self-focus and rumination. We posit here that sufficient empirical data has accumulated to build a coherent biologic model that links these psychologic concepts and symptom dimensions to observed biochemical, cellular, regional and neural network deficits. Specifically, deficits in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid regulating excitatory cell input/output and local cell circuit processing of information in key brain regions may underlie the shift that is observed in depressed subjects in resting-state activities between the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This regional dysbalance translates at the network level in a dysbalance between default-mode and executive networks, which psychopathologically surfaces as a shift in focus from external to internal mental content and associated symptoms. We focus here on primary evidence at each of those levels and on putative mechanistic links between those levels. Apart from its implications for neuropsychiatric disorders, our model provides for the first time a set of hypotheses for cross-level mechanisms of how internal and external mental contents may be constituted and balanced in healthy subjects, and thus also contributes to the neuroscientific debate on the neural correlates of consciousness.

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