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J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Sep 11;155(2):1291-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.07.022. Epub 2014 Jul 19.

Comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats and microarray analysis of drug-metabolizing genes.

Author information

1
Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: thtsai@ym.edu.tw.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Rhein is a pharmacological active component found in Rheum palmatum L. that is the major herb of the San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a medicinal herbal product used as a remedy for constipation. Here we have investigated the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and constipated rats. Microarray analysis was used to explore whether drug-metabolizing genes will be altered after SHXXT treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats was studied by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Gene expression profiling in drug-metabolizing genes after SHXXT treatment was investigated by microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

RESULTS:

A validated LC-MS/MS method was applied to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in normal and loperamide-induced constipated rats. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrate that the loperamide-induced constipation reduced the absorption of rhein. Cmax significantly reduced by 2.5-fold, the AUC decreased by 27.8%; however, the elimination half-life (t1/2) was prolonged by 1.6-fold. Tmax and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly prolonged by 2.8-fold, and 1.7-fold, respectively. The volume of distribution (Vss) increased by 2.2-fold. The data of microarray analysis on gene expression indicate that five drug-metabolizing genes, including Cyp7a1, Cyp2c6, Ces2e, Atp1b1, and Slc7a2 were significantly altered by the SHXXT (0.5 g/kg) treatment.

CONCLUSION:

The loperamide-induced constipation reduced the absorption of rhein. Since among the 25,338 genes analyzed, there were five genes significantly altered by SHXXT treatment. Thus, information on minor drug-metabolizing genes altered by SHXXT treatment indicates that SHXXT is relatively safe for clinical application.

KEYWORDS:

Loperamide-induced constipation; Microarray; Pharmacokinetics; Rhein; Traditional Chinese medicine

PMID:
25046826
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2014.07.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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