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J Sci Food Agric. 2015 Apr;95(6):1268-73. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6817. Epub 2014 Aug 26.

Comparison of lipids, fatty acids and volatile compounds of various kumquat species using HS/GC/MS/FID techniques.

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University of Çukurova, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 01330, Balcalı, Adana, Turkey.



Kumquat (Fortunella spp.) is one of the important fruit species that has been introduced into Turkey recently. It is well adapted to the Mediterranean region in Turkey. Early research of kumquat was started on adaptation and pomological traits, and only a few studies have been concerned with chemical content. After understanding the health benefits of kumquat fruits farmers started their plantations in Turkey. Thus in this study the fruits of five kumquat species - Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle, F. crassifolia Swingle, F. obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, F. hindsii (Champ. ex Benth.) Swingle, and limequat [Citrus aurantifolia × F. japonica (Thumb.)] - were compared based on their lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles. The lipids, fatty acids and volatile profiles were determined by using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) techniques. Volatile constituents of kumquat fruits were isolated by a headspace method.


The total lipid content (%) of kumquat species ranged from 0.26% to 0.37%. The polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected in a higher amount compared to the monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The headspace technique led to the identification of 39 compounds and among a total of 39 constituents identified, d-limonene was the most abundant compound, comprising 67.78-88.72%. The results indicated that kumquats are rich in dietary and health benefits.


Thirty-nine compounds were identified and terpenes were the major chemical group in all kumquat genotypes. Esters, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were also detected. The present study revealed that the kumquat fruits have a valuable levels of health beneficial chemo-preventive effects and genotypes varied based on their lipid, fatty acids and volatile constituents.


GC/MS; fatty acids; headspace; kumquat; volatiles

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