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Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Oct;29(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2014.07.004. Epub 2014 Jul 17.

Role of the nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway in obstructive airway diseases.

Author information

1
Laboratory for Translational Research in Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
2
George P. Livanos and Marianthi Simou Laboratories, Evangelismos Hospital, 1st Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.
3
Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, Ghent, Belgium.
4
Laboratory for Translational Research in Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: guy.brusselle@ugent.be.

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseotransmitter, which is involved in many signaling processes in health and disease. Three enzymes generate NO from l-arginine, with citrulline formed as a by-product: neuronal NO synthase (nNOS or NOS1), endothelial NOS (eNOS or NOS3) and inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS2). NO is a ligand of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an intracellular heterodimer enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic GMP (cGMP). cGMP further activates protein kinase G that eventually reduces the smooth muscle tone in bronchi or vessels. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) degrades cGMP to GMP. However, NO reacts with superoxide anion (O2(-)), leading to formation of the pro-inflammatory molecule peroxynitrite. Under physiological conditions, NO plays a homeostatic bronchoprotective role in healthy subjects. In obstructive airway diseases, NO can be beneficial by its bronchodilating effect, but could also be detrimental by the formation of peroxynitrite. Since asthma and COPD are associated with increased levels of exhaled NO, chronic inflammation and increased airway smooth muscle tone, the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway could be involved in these highly prevalent obstructive airway diseases. Here we review the involvement of NO, NO synthases, guanylyl cyclases, cGMP and phophodiesterase-5 in asthma and COPD and potential therapeutic approaches to modulate this pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Asthma; COPD; Nitric oxide; Soluble guanylyl cyclase

PMID:
25043200
DOI:
10.1016/j.pupt.2014.07.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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