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Cancer. 2014 Dec 1;120(23):3660-8. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28930. Epub 2014 Jul 17.

Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster therapy in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

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Department of Pediatrics-Patient Care, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.



Various trials have reported improved outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received treatment with pediatric-based regimens. Those reports prompted the current investigation of the pediatric augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ABFM) regimen in AYA patients. The results were compared with those from a similar population that received the hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) regimen.


Eighty-five patients ages 12 to 40 years who had Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative ALL received the ABFM regimen from October 2006 through April 2012. Their outcome was compared with outcomes in 71 historic AYA patients who received hyper-CVAD from the authors' institution. Patient and disease characteristics, as well as minimal residual disease status, were analyzed for their impact on outcomes.


The complete response rate with ABFM was 94%. The 3-year complete remission duration (CRD) and overall survival (OS) rates were 70% and 74%, respectively. For patients aged ≤21 years, the 3-year CRD and OS rates were 72% and 85%, respectively; and, for patients ages 21 to 40 years, the respective rates were 69% and 60%. The initial white blood cell count was an independent predictive factor of OS and CRD. The minimal residual disease status on days 29 and 84 of therapy also were predictive of long-term outcomes. Severe regimen toxicities included transient hepatotoxicity in 35% to 39% of patients, pancreatitis in 11% of patients, osteonecrosis in 11% of patients, and thrombosis in 22% of patients. The 3-year OS rate was 74% in the ABFM group versus 71% in the hyper-CVAD group, and the corresponding 3-year CRD rate was 70% versus 66%, respectively.


ABFM was tolerable in AYA patients with ALL but was not associated with significant improvements in CRD and OS compared with hyper-CVAD.


Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster; pediatric-based regimens; pediatric-based therapy

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