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Nat Commun. 2014 Jul 21;5:4458. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5458.

Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics.

Author information

1
1] Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA [2].
2
1] IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA [2].
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA.

Abstract

Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are the two major types of layered materials under intensive investigation. However, the zero-bandgap nature of graphene and the relatively low mobility in TMDCs limit their applications. Here we reintroduce black phosphorus (BP), the most stable allotrope of phosphorus with strong intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, to the layered-material family. For 15-nm-thick BP, we measure a Hall mobility of 1,000 and 600 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) for holes along the light (x) and heavy (y) effective mass directions at 120 K. BP thin films also exhibit large and anisotropic in-plane optical conductivity from 2 to 5 μm. Field-effect transistors using 5 nm BP along x direction exhibit an on-off current ratio exceeding 10(5), a field-effect mobility of 205 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), and good current saturation characteristics all at room temperature. BP shows great potential for thin-film electronics, infrared optoelectronics and novel devices in which anisotropic properties are desirable.

PMID:
25041752
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms5458

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