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PLoS One. 2014 Jul 18;9(7):e102395. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102395. eCollection 2014.

Surfactant protein D inhibits HIV-1 infection of target cells via interference with gp120-CD4 interaction and modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

Author information

Department of Innate Immunity, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (ICMR), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Biomedical Informatics Centre, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (ICMR), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Centre for Infection, Immunity and Disease Mechanisms, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seth G S Medical College and K E M Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Clinical Research, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (ICMR), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Immunocompromised Host Research Section, Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Surfactant Protein SP-D, a member of the collectin family, is a pattern recognition protein, secreted by mucosal epithelial cells and has an important role in innate immunity against various pathogens. In this study, we confirm that native human SP-D and a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) bind to gp120 of HIV-1 and significantly inhibit viral replication in vitro in a calcium and dose-dependent manner. We show, for the first time, that SP-D and rhSP-D act as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 entry in to target cells and block the interaction between CD4 and gp120 in a dose-dependent manner. The rhSP-D-mediated inhibition of viral replication was examined using three clinical isolates of HIV-1 and three target cells: Jurkat T cells, U937 monocytic cells and PBMCs. HIV-1 induced cytokine storm in the three target cells was significantly suppressed by rhSP-D. Phosphorylation of key kinases p38, Erk1/2 and AKT, which contribute to HIV-1 induced immune activation, was significantly reduced in vitro in the presence of rhSP-D. Notably, anti-HIV-1 activity of rhSP-D was retained in the presence of biological fluids such as cervico-vaginal lavage and seminal plasma. Our study illustrates the multi-faceted role of human SP-D against HIV-1 and potential of rhSP-D for immunotherapy to inhibit viral entry and immune activation in acute HIV infection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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