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Immunity. 2014 Jul 17;41(1):14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.06.008.

Macrophage activation and polarization: nomenclature and experimental guidelines.

Author information

1
Departments of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Electronic address: peter.murray@stjude.org.
2
Centre for Immunity, Infection, and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK.
3
Singapore Immunology Network, A(∗)STAR, 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos Building, Level 4, Singapore138648, Singapore.
4
Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, New York University School of Medicine, Smilow 7, 522 First Avenue, New York, NY, USA.
5
Division of Medicine, Rayne Institute, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1 6JJ, UK.
6
Department Dermatology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.
7
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, OX1 3RE, UK.
8
Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia.
9
Hospital for Special Surgery and Weill Medical College, Cornell University, 535 East 70(th) Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.
10
Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, 13009 Marseille, France.
11
University of Milan School of Medicine, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
12
Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology, and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK.
13
Infectious Diseases, Aix Marseille University, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13285 Marseille, France.
14
Department of Cell Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
15
Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Via Adamello 16, 20146 Milan, Italy.
16
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
17
Genomics & Immunoregulation, LIMES-Institute, University of Bonn, 32115 Bonn, Germany.
18
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
19
Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale "Amedeo Avogadro," Via Bovio 6, 28100 Novara, Italy.
20
Microbiology & Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.
21
Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7FY, UK.
22
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium; Laboratory of Myeloid Cell Immunology, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
23
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Abstract

Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. The lack of consensus on how to define macrophage activation in experiments in vitro and in vivo impedes progress in multiple ways, including the fact that many researchers still consider there to be only two types of activated macrophages, often termed M1 and M2. Here, we describe a set of standards encompassing three principles-the source of macrophages, definition of the activators, and a consensus collection of markers to describe macrophage activation-with the goal of unifying experimental standards for diverse experimental scenarios. Collectively, we propose a common framework for macrophage-activation nomenclature.

PMID:
25035950
PMCID:
PMC4123412
DOI:
10.1016/j.immuni.2014.06.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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