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Indian J Psychol Med. 2014 Jul;36(3):332-4. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.135394.

Functional convergence spasm.

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Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.


Convergence spasm (CS) means intermittent episodes of convergence, miosis and accommodation with disconjugate gaze mimicking abducens palsy. The organic causes range from metabolic to host of neurological and ophthalmic diseases that we describe. It was first described as a presentation of psychogenic disorders by von Graefe as early as in 1856. Nonetheless, patients exhibiting this sign are often subjected to plethora of unnecessary, sophisticated and invasive diagnostic procedures. Such functional cases were treated with either cycloplegic/placebo eye drop or amytal abreaction. Though epidemiological studies suggest that conversion disorder is equally prevalent in industrialized nations and developing countries, a few cases of functional CS are reported from West including Asia, that to, decade(s) before and none from India, to the best of our knowledge. We illustrate a case of functional CS with photograph after consent from patient and its successful treatment.


Convergence spasm; dissociative disorder; functional convergence spasm

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