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Science. 2014 Jul 18;345(6194):1250092. doi: 10.1126/science.1250092.

Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Ås, Norway.
2
Department of Plant Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Ås, Norway. simen.sandve@nmbu.no.
3
Strømsveien 78 B, 0663 Oslo, Norway.
4
Plant Genome and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.
5
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
6
The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.

Abstract

The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic.

PMID:
25035499
DOI:
10.1126/science.1250092
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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