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Science. 2014 Jul 18;345(6194):298-302. doi: 10.1126/science.1253213.

Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements.

Author information

1
Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
2
Micro and Nanooptics Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.
3
Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. brongersma@stanford.edu.

Abstract

Gradient metasurfaces are two-dimensional optical elements capable of manipulating light by imparting local, space-variant phase changes on an incident electromagnetic wave. These surfaces have thus far been constructed from nanometallic optical antennas, and high diffraction efficiencies have been limited to operation in reflection mode. We describe the experimental realization and operation of dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements capable of also achieving high efficiencies in transmission mode in the visible spectrum. Ultrathin gratings, lenses, and axicons have been realized by patterning a 100-nanometer-thick Si layer into a dense arrangement of Si nanobeam antennas. The use of semiconductors can broaden the general applicability of gradient metasurfaces, as they offer facile integration with electronics and can be realized by mature semiconductor fabrication technologies.

PMID:
25035488
DOI:
10.1126/science.1253213
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