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Surg Endosc. 2015 Mar;29(3):552-7. doi: 10.1007/s00464-014-3721-5. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Camera navigation and cannulation: validity evidence for new educational tasks to complement the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery program.

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Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Room L9-313, Montreal, QC, H3G 1A4, Canada,



Experts identified camera navigation and cannulation as important skills that are not assessed by the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) hands-on examination. The purpose of this study was to create metrics for and evaluate the validity for two new tasks: camera navigation (N) and cannulation (C), and to explore the potential value of adding these tasks to the FLS program.


Participants were assessed by two raters during performance of N and C in addition to the five standard FLS tasks. They also completed a questionnaire regarding the educational value of the new tasks. Validity evidence was assessed by comparing performance between Novice (PGY 1 and 2) and Experienced (PGY 3 and higher) participants, and by correlating new task scores with standard FLS scores. The ability to predict level of training using scores was evaluated by regression analysis.


Sixty subjects participated from five North American centers. Inter-rater reliabilities for both tasks were 0.99. Novice and Experienced participants scored 74 ± 17.8 versus 85 ± 8.3 (p < 0.01) and 21 ± 17.3 versus 39 ± 20.1 (p < 0.01) on N and C tasks, respectively. Correlations with total FLS scores for N and C were 0.39 and 0.53, respectively. Prediction of training level using the combination of all seven tasks was 52.6 % (R (2) = 0.526, p < 0.01), adding an additional 2.2 % to the five FLS tasks. Of 55 participants with laparoscopic experience, 51 % reported N to be similar in difficulty to reality. Of 28 participants who perform intraoperative cholangiograms, 43 % found C to be more difficult than reality. Most (70 %) participants thought the new tasks added value to FLS.


This study provides preliminary validity evidence for the metrics of these new tasks. The value of adding these tasks to the FLS manual skills assessment is marginal in terms of predicting level of training.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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