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Nat Prod Res. 2014;28(24):2264-72. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2014.938337. Epub 2014 Jul 17.

Extraction optimisation and isolation of triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum and their effect on human carcinoma cell growth.

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a Department of Chemistry , National University of Singapore , Singapore , Singapore.


The response surface methodology was used to optimise the extraction conditions of Ganoderma lucidum based on a Box-Behnken design. A quadratic model sufficiently simulated the response of ganoderic acid H with a determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.98. The optimal condition for extracting triterpenoids was determined to be 100.00% ethanol at 60.22°C for 6.00 h, under which the yield of the reference triterpenoid ganoderic acid H increased from 0.88 to 2.09 mg/g powder. Following extraction, triterpenoid-enriched fraction was further isolated into 23 fractions, and 7 fractions were identified as ganoderic acids A, B, D, G, H and I and ganoderenic acid D. Of the seven triterpenoids, ganoderenic acid D was most cytotoxic with IC50 values of 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.03 mg/mL in Hep G2, Hela and Caco-2 cells, respectively. While ganoderic acids A, G and H were relatively non-cytotoxic. The variation of inhibitory effects for these triterpenoids was likely related to their chemical structures.


Ganoderma lucidum; cytotoxicity; isolation; response surface methodology; triterpenoids

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