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Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 May;16(5):e13259. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.13259. Epub 2014 May 5.

Self-directed Learning and Its Impact on Menopausal Symptoms.

Author information

  • 1Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Midwifery and Instructor, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran ; Department of Reproductive Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
  • 2Department of Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
  • 3Social Determinant of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran.
  • 4Department of Biostatistics, School of Management and Medical Information, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.



One of the main criteria to verify the effectiveness of a health training program is to measure quality of life in menopausal women.


Hence the aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of self-directed learning (SDL) on MENQOl.


The present single blind field study was conducted in Saadatmandi Health Center of Robat Karim (Iran, Southwest of Tehran Province) from August to December 2010. One handred and ten menopausal women were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided into two experimental (Self-directed Learning) and control groups of 55 each. Four manuals were developed to guide the women in the experimental group containing practical ways to treat menopausal symptoms. They were distributed among the participants for four weeks on a specific day. Menopausal Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) was used to determine and compare quality of life scores of these women (before and three months after intervention sessions). The control group did not receive any intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS/16 software using Kolmogorov-Sminov, ANOVA, independent paired t test and Chi-square test.


There were significant statistical differences between two groups regarding the age of subjects; age of menopause; economic, educational and employment status; number of dead and living children; BMI and vasomotor, physical, sexual and psycho-social postmenopausal symptoms. The implementation of Self-directed Learning (SDL) model leads to a significant statistical difference in scores of vasomotor symptoms (16.32 ± 5.92 to 13.26 ± 5.31), psychosocial symptoms (34.8 ± 11 to 27.18 ± 10.83), physical symptoms (75.02 ± 18.07 to 61.42 ± 15.49), sexual symptoms (15.36 ± 6.10 to 12.00 ± 4.97) and the overall score for quality of life (141.5 ± 41.09 to 113.86 ± 36.6) (P < 0.001). No significant changes were found in the QOL scores of the control group.


Implementation of self-directed learning provides a useful strategy that should be included in health intervention and national surveillance programs in order to improve health and therapeutic compliance in postmenopausal women.


Menopausal; Quality of Life; Self-Medication

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