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J Genomics. 2014 Mar 20;2:68-76. doi: 10.7150/jgen.8044. eCollection 2014.

The sex chromosomes of frogs: variability and tolerance offer clues to genome evolution and function.

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Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269 USA.


Frog sex chromosomes offer an ideal system for advancing our understanding of genome evolution and function because of the variety of sex determination systems in the group, the diversity of sex chromosome maturation states, the ease of experimental manipulation during early development. After briefly reviewing sex chromosome biology generally, we focus on what is known about frog sex determination, sex chromosome evolution, and recent, genomics-facilitated advances in the field. In closing we highlight gaps in our current knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and suggest priorities for future research that can advance broad knowledge of gene dose and sex chromosome evolution.


Homomorphic; aneuploidy; compensation; dosage; sex determination

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