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JAMA Surg. 2014 Sep;149(9):893-7. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2014.1227.

Pregnancy-related attrition in general surgery.

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Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis, Sacramento.



Residency attrition rates remain a great challenge for general surgery training programs. Despite the increasing acceptance of pregnancy during training, 1 common perception is that women who become pregnant are at increased risk of leaving surgery programs.


To determine whether child rearing increases the risk of attrition from general surgery residency.


Retrospective review of all categorical general surgery residents in a single academic general surgery residency program over a 10-year period. All categorical general surgery residents matriculated from July 1, 1999, until July 1, 2009.


Voluntary attrition rate, involuntary attrition rate, and incidence of child rearing among residents.


Eighty-five residents matched into categorical general surgery postgraduate year 1 spots from July 1, 1999, to July 1, 2009. Of the total residents, 49 (58%) were men while 36 (42%) were women. Attrition in the program was 18.8% (16 of 85). Seven (44%) of the residents who left the program were women; this was 19% of all female residents in the program. This was not significantly different from the proportion of men who left the program (P = .90). A higher percentage of women (57%) left after their intern year compared with men (22%). Furthermore, men had the highest rate of attrition during research (33%) while no women left during research years. Among the 85 residents, 9 women reported a total of 10 pregnancies and 16 men reported raising 21 children (1 woman and 1 man left the program). The proportion of child rearing was higher in those who did not leave the program but this did not reach significance (P = .10). Neither age (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4), sex (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.2-3.6), nor incidence of child rearing during training (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.1-9.6) were associated with an increased risk of attrition. Residents with children born during training did not demonstrate fewer total case numbers (men, P = .40; women, P = .93) or board pass rates (men, P = .76; women, P = .50) compared with residents who did not have children during training. Women who had children during training were more likely to pursue fellowship (87.5%) than those who did not (66.7%)(P < .001).


The current study demonstrated there was no association between female sex and attrition at our institution. Child rearing did not appear to be a risk factor for attrition in either men or women. Furthermore, child rearing did not negatively impact the quality of training based on case numbers and board pass rates. Despite prevalent stereotypes, child rearing did not cause women or men to leave the program.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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