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Int J Surg. 2014;12(8):864-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.07.007. Epub 2014 Jul 12.

Techniques and outcomes of combined inferior vena cava and visceral resection for benign and malignant disease.

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Department of Hepatobiliary and Liver Transplant Surgery, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:
Department of Hepatobiliary and Liver Transplant Surgery, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland.



Involvement of the inferior vena cava (IVC) by neoplasm has traditionally been considered a contra-indication to curative surgery because of high surgical risks and poor long-term prognosis. Advances in surgical and anaesthetic techniques however have made this feasible. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of combined IVC and visceral resection in a single institution.


A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed. Pre-operative clinicopathological data, operative details and post-operative outcomes including overall and disease-free survival were analysed. Clinicopathological data of patients over a seven-year period undergoing combined IVC and visceral resection was reviewed, including overall and disease-free survival.


Between 2006 and 2012, 14 patients underwent IVC resection was accompanied by major hepatectomy (8), nephrectomy (6) and multivisceral resection (3). Post resection, the IVC was reconstructed primarily (3); with PTFE tube graft (9) or using a Gore-tex patch graft (2). All patients underwent a R0 resection. There were two postoperative deaths within 30 days. 6 patients had postoperative complications. There was 1 early and one late (after 6 months) IVC thrombosis. With a median follow up of 20 months (range 5-84 months), two patients died of tumour recurrence and ten are alive with (n = 5) or without (n = 5) disease.


Combined IVC and visceral resection can be safely performed in selected patients. Surgery provides the possibility of negative margins, acceptable perioperative morbidity/mortality and prolonged survival. These factors combined with lack of alternative treatments justify this approach. However, specialist teams should perform the surgery preferably in centres with expertise in liver transplantation.


Hepatobiliary; Inferior vena cava resection; Liver transplantation

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