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Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:567183. doi: 10.1155/2014/567183. Epub 2014 Jun 15.

Extremely low frequency magnetic fields induce spermatogenic germ cell apoptosis: possible mechanism.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Sacred Heart Hospital, School of Medicine, Hallym University, 153 Kyo-dong, Gangwon, Chuncheon 200-704, Republic of Korea.
2
Institute of Medical Science, School of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon, Chuncheon 200-702, Republic of Korea.
3
School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dankook University, 152 Jukjeon-ro, Suji-gu, Gyeonggi, Yongin 448-701, Republic of Korea.
4
Institute of Medical Science, School of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon, Chuncheon 200-702, Republic of Korea ; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon, Chuncheon 200-702, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1 Hz to 100 kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF.

PMID:
25025060
PMCID:
PMC4082851
DOI:
10.1155/2014/567183
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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