Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(4):1357-82. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140891.

Somatic signature of brain-specific single nucleotide variations in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Department of Cell Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED, ISCIII), Spain.
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED, ISCIII), Spain Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain.
3
Joint IRB-BSC Program in Computational Biology, Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain.
4
Department of Cell Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.
5
Fundación CIEN, Vallecas, Madrid, Spain.
6
Department of Cell Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED, ISCIII), Spain Fundación CIEN, Vallecas, Madrid, Spain Vall d'Hebrón Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although genome-wide association studies have shown that genetic factors increase the risk of suffering late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD), the molecular mechanisms responsible remain largely unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of somatic, brain-specific single nucleotide variations (SNV) in the hippocampus of SAD samples.

METHODS:

By using bioinformatic tools, we compared whole exome sequences in paired blood and hippocampal genomic DNAs from 17 SAD patients and from 2 controls and 2 vascular dementia patients.

RESULTS:

We found a remarkable number of SNVs in SAD brains (~575 per patient) that were not detected in blood. Loci with hippocampus-specific (hs)-SNVs were common to several patients, with 38 genes being present in 6 or more patients out of the 17. While some of these SNVs were in genes previously related to SAD (e.g., CSMD1, LRP2), most hs-SNVs occurred in loci previously unrelated to SAD. The most frequent genes with hs-SNVs were associated with neurotransmission, DNA metabolism, neuronal transport, and muscular function. Interestingly, 19 recurrent hs-SNVs were common to 3 SAD patients. Repetitive loci or hs-SNVs were underrepresented in the hippocampus of control or vascular dementia donors, or in the cerebellum of SAD patients.

CONCLUSION:

Our data suggest that adult blood and brain have different DNA genomic variations, and that somatic genetic mosaicism and brain-specific genome reshaping may contribute to SAD pathogenesis and cognitive differences between individuals.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; exome sequencing; somatic variations

PMID:
25024348
DOI:
10.3233/JAD-140891
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for IOS Press
Loading ...
Support Center