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J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(4):1295-310. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140954.

Midlife vascular risk factors and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, China.
2
Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, China Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, China Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, College of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Ocean University of China, China.
3
Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, China.
4
Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, College of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Ocean University of China, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:

We examine whether midlife vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with increased risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a systematic review and meta-analysis of published cohort studies.

METHODS:

Original cohort studies were included if they reported adjusted combined odds ratio (COR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or enough information to quantify the association between risk for AD in late-life and baseline VRFs of midlife.

RESULTS:

There were positive and significant associations between high blood pressure (COR 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01-1.70), hypercholesterolemia (COR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.32-2.24), obesity (COR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.32-2.69), and diabetes mellitus in midlife (COR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.25-1.57). Smoking and hyperhomocysteinemia (although only one high-quality paper) were also associated with an increased risk of AD generally.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results strengthen the epidemiological evidence that VRFs of midlife significantly increase risk for AD.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; diabetes mellitus; high blood pressure; hypercholesterolemia; hyperhomocysteinemia; meta-analysis; midlife vascular risk factors; obesity; smoking; systematic review

PMID:
25024338
DOI:
10.3233/JAD-140954
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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