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Exp Neurol. 2014 Aug;258:35-47. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.04.028.

Complement and spinal cord injury: traditional and non-traditional aspects of complement cascade function in the injured spinal cord microenvironment.

Author information

1
Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Center, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
2
Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Center, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address: aja@uci.edu.

Abstract

The pathology associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) is caused not only by primary mechanical trauma, but also by secondary responses of the injured CNS. The inflammatory response to SCI is robust and plays an important but complex role in the progression of many secondary injury-associated pathways. Although recent studies have begun to dissect the beneficial and detrimental roles for inflammatory cells and proteins after SCI, many of these neuroimmune interactions are debated, not well understood, or completely unexplored. In this regard, the complement cascade is a key component of the inflammatory response to SCI, but is largely underappreciated, and our understanding of its diverse interactions and effects in this pathological environment is limited. In this review, we discuss complement in the context of SCI, first in relation to traditional functions for complement cascade activation, and then in relation to novel roles for complement proteins in a variety of models.

KEYWORDS:

Axon; C1q; C3; Complement; Guidance; Inflammation; Regeneration; Scar; Spinal cord injury

PMID:
25017886
DOI:
10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.04.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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