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Psychosomatics. 2014 Nov-Dec;55(6):578-85. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2014.02.011. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

The pain self-efficacy questionnaire: validation of an abbreviated two-item questionnaire.

Author information

1
Orthopaedic Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA?>
2
Orthopaedic Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA?>. Electronic address: Dring@partners.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) is a validated tool to assess pain self-efficacy and is strongly correlated with disability. Reducing the number of questions of the original PSEQ to screen for self-efficacy will result in more efficient screening and less burden for the patient.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to prospectively validate the shortened version of the PSEQ.

METHOD:

Overall, 249 new and follow-up patients visiting our outpatient orthopedic hand surgery clinic were prospectively enrolled and asked to complete the PSEQ, short version of the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand, and 2-question version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) depression questionnaires. The patients completed the questionnaires in the office and online 2 weeks after their visit. At the follow-up visit, the PSEQ was substituted with the 2-question version of the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ-2). The factors associated with higher short forms of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were investigated in a bivariate and multivariable analysis. Paired t-test was used to compare the mean values of the short and long questionnaires at enrollment.

RESULTS:

There was a large correlation (r = 0.90; p < 0.001) between the original PSEQ and the PSEQ-2 at enrollment. The Cronbach α were comparable for the PSEQ and the PSEQ-2 (α = 0.95 compared with α = 0.91). There was a small but statistically significant difference between the average scores of the PSEQ and PSEQ-2 (4.4 vs 4.8; p < 0.001). For the shortened PSEQ, a smaller-but still large-correlation was found with the short forms of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (r = 0.71 vs r = 0.61). Both the PSEQ-2 and the PSEQ were the most important predictors of the short forms of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores. A substantial test-retest reliability was found for the PSEQ-2 (0.66).

CONCLUSION:

The PSEQ-2 can be used to quickly assess patients׳ pain self-efficacy.

PMID:
25016359
DOI:
10.1016/j.psym.2014.02.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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