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Exp Gerontol. 2014 Oct;58:51-7. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2014.07.001. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

High-speed resistance training is more effective than low-speed resistance training to increase functional capacity and muscle performance in older women.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Activity Sciences, Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno, Chile.
2
School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
3
Laboratory of Exercise Sciences, MEDS Clinic, Santiago, Chile.
4
Family Health Center, Los Lagos, Chile.
5
Department of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.
6
School of Health, Duoc UC, Santiago, Chile.
7
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal; Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal.
8
Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal; Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
9
Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarre, Navarre, Spain. Electronic address: mikel.izquierdo@gmail.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the effects of 12 weeks of high-speed resistance training (RT) versus low-speed RT on muscle strength [one repetition of maximum leg-press (1RMLP) and bench-press (1RMBP), plus dominant (HGd) and non-dominant maximum isometric handgrip], power [counter-movement jump (CMJ), ball throwing (BT) and 10-m walking sprint (S10)], functional performance [8-foot up-and-go test (UG) and sit-to-stand test (STS)], and perceived quality of life in older women.

METHODS:

45 older women were divided into a high-speed RT group [EG, n=15, age=66.3±3.7y], a low-speed RT group [SG, n=15, age=68.7±6.4y] and a control group [CG, n=15, age=66.7±4.9y]. The SG and EG were submitted to a similar 12-week RT program [3 sets of 8 reps at 40-75% of the one-repetition maximum (1<RM), CMJ and BT] using slow, controlled (3s) concentric muscle actions for the SG and using fast, explosive (<1s) concentric muscle actions for the EG (20% less work per exercise without CMJ and BT).

RESULTS:

Over the 12-week training period, both RT groups showed small to large clinically significant improvements in the dependent variables; however, a significant difference was found between the EG and SG for the performance changes in BT, S10 and UG (20% vs. 11%, p<0.05; 14% vs. 9%, p<0.05; 18% vs. 10%, p<0.01; respectively). No significant changes were observed for the CG.

CONCLUSION:

Both RT interventions are effective in improving functional capacity, muscle performance and quality of life in older women, although a high-speed RT program induces greater improvements in muscle power and functional capacity.

KEYWORDS:

Adaptation; Aging; Power output; Resistance training; Women

PMID:
25014621
DOI:
10.1016/j.exger.2014.07.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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